In this Book. Additional Information. Originally published in Table of Contents. Cover Download Save contents. Contents pp. Illustrations pp. Acknowledgments pp. Introduction pp. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription.
Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. They would simply starve to death. A tactical retreat from enforced socialism was deemed necessary, a move that was deeply unpopular with the Bolshevik rank and file. Soviet Union: The communist regime in crisis: — Since a Bolshevik stronghold, in February Kronshtadt raised the banner of revolt against the communist dictatorship, demanding the restoration of liberties and the convocation of a Constituent Assembly.
SR stood for Social Revolutionaries , a democratic socialist party that had been dominant in the soviets before the return of Vladimir Lenin , and whose right wing had refused to support the Bolsheviks. The Black Hundreds were a reactionary ultranationalist movement in Russia in the early 20th century, that were supporters of the House of Romanov and opposed any retreat from the autocracy of the reigning monarch.
The Bolshevik government began its attack on Kronstadt on March 7. On March 17, the Bolshevik forces entered the city of Kronstadt after having suffered over 10, fatalities. The day after the surrender of Kronstadt, the Bolsheviks celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of the Paris Commune. Although there are no reliable figures for the rebels' battle losses, historians estimate that 1, to 2, were executed in the days following the revolt, and a like number were jailed, many in the Solovki prison camp.
More fortunate rebels managed to escape to Finland, their large number causing the first major refugee problem for the newly independent state. The refugees in Finland were later pardoned through an amnesty. Some months after his return, he was arrested on espionage charges and sentenced to ten years in prison. He died in Vladimir prison in Although Red Army units suppressed the uprising, the general dissatisfaction with the state of affairs could not have been more forcefully expressed.
Vladimir Lenin stated that Kronstadt "lit up reality like a lightning flash". Against this background of discontent, Lenin concluded that world revolution was not imminent and proceeded in the spring of to replace the War Communism with his New Economic Policy. Claims that the Kronstadt uprising was instigated by foreign and counter-revolutionary forces extended beyond the March 2 government ultimatum.
The anarchist Emma Goldman , who was in Petrograd at the time of the rebellion, described in a retrospective account from how "the news in the Paris Press about the Kronstadt uprising two weeks before it happened had been stressed in the [official press] campaign against the sailors as proof positive that they had been tools of the Imperialist gang and that rebellion had actually been hatched in Paris.
It was too obvious that this yarn was used only to discredit the Kronstadters in the eyes of the workers. Avrich says this memorandum was probably written between January and early February by an agent of an exile opposition group called the National Centre in Finland. Those debates started at the time of the rebellion. Because Leon Trotsky was in charge of the Red Army forces that suppressed the uprising, with the backing of Lenin, the question of whether the suppression was justified became a point of contention on the revolutionary left, in debates between anarchists and Leninist Marxists about the character of the Soviet state and Leninist politics, and more particularly in debates between anarchists and Trotsky and his followers.
It remains so to this day. On the pro-Leninist side of those debates, the memorandum published by Avrich is treated as a "smoking gun" showing foreign and counter-revolutionary conspiracy behind the rebellion, for example in an article from by a Trotskyist writer, Abbie Bakan.
Bakan says "[t]he document includes remarkably detailed information about the resources, personnel, arms and plans of the Kronstadt rebellion. Kronstadt's newspaper was renamed.
The victors quickly started to eliminate all traces of the revolt. Anchor Square became "Revolutionary Square" and the rebel battleships Petropavlovsk and Sevastopol were renamed the Marat and the Paris Commune, respectively.
Kronstadt was a popular uprising from below by the same sailors, soldiers and workers that made the October revolution. The Bolshevik repression of the revolt can be justified in terms of defending the state power of the Bolsheviks but it cannot be defended in terms of socialist theory.
Indeed, it indicates that Bolshevism is a flawed political theory, which cannot create a socialist society, but only a state capitalist regime based on party dictatorship. This is what Kronstadt shows above all else: given a choice between workers' power and party power, Bolshevism will destroy the former to ensure the latter. Taken from www. After having narrated the events leading to the coup , we return to Bolivia with the aim of analyzing what has been Statement from Colectivo Curva on the resistance of the people of El Alto in response to the ongoing coup attempt in Bolivia.
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One thing is certain, the Kronstadters didn't want the initiative to pass out of their hands. Although there are no reliable figures for the rebels' Gegen Feindesland - Festung Kronstadt - First Demo (Cassette) losses, historians estimate that 1, to 2, were executed in the days following the revolt, and a like number were jailed, many in the Solovki prison camp. On 12th. On March 12, the rebel forces totaled 18 thousand Gegen Feindesland - Festung Kronstadt - First Demo (Cassette) and sailors, guns of coastal defense including naval guns of battleships "Sevastopol" and "Petropavlovsk" - gunsmore than machine guns with a lot of ammunition. For the workers of Kronstadt, handicraft production was to compensate for an industrial production that had fallen to nought. Many only went reluctantly. This brought about large-scale discontent among the Russian populace, particularly amongst the peasantry, who felt disadvantaged by Communist grain requisitioning prodrazvyorstkaforced seizure of large portions of the peasants' grain crop used to feed urban dwellers and as a result often refused to till their land. Led by Stepan Petrichenko  and consisting of Russian sailors, soldiers and civilians, the rebellion was one of the reasons for Vladimir Lenin 's and the Communist Party's decision to loosen its control of the Russian economy by implementing the New Economic Policy NEP.
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