This diverse sampling of new and older Balinese styles appeared on 78 rpm discs that same year, with subsequent releases for international distribution. The discs were sold world-wide or not sold, as it happened and quickly went out of print. Gamelan groups were having their older ceremonial orchestras melted down and reforged in the new style. Intense competition between villages and regions stimulated young composers to develop impressive innovations and techniques.
Andrew Toth has written of these landmark recordings:. Five of the ninety-eight existing matrices sides made at that time were included by the well-known scholar Erich M.
For this reason the information on the labels was printed in Malay, the lingua franca of the archipelago, and in some cases even in Balinese script. The ambitious plan to develop an indigenous market was a complete failure, however, since few Balinese were interested in this new and expensive technology — especially when there was a world of live performances happening daily in the thousands of temples and households throughout the island. McPhee was the only customer to purchase these 78 rpm discs in an entire year from one frustrated dealer; his collection contains most of the copies that are still preserved to this day, for the agent later smashed the remaining stock in a fit of rage.
McPhee Although limited by the medium to being three-minute excerpts, they consequently are remarkable examples of a broad range of musical genres — vocal as well as instrumental — and many outstanding composers, performers and ensembles of the period who are now famous teachers of legendary clubs — I Wayan Lotring, I Nyoman Kaler, and the gamelan gong of Pangkung, Belaluan, and Busungbiu. These invaluable sound documents of the musical and family heritage of the Balinese include styles of vocal chant rarely heard today; Kebyar Ding, a historically important composition that has been relearned from the recordings by the present generation of musicians, whose fathers and grandfathers made the original discs; and records of renowned singers that are considered even sacred by their descendants, who keep tape copies in the family shrine.
These are the discs the young Canadian composer Colin McPhee heard in New York in , when friends brought them back from Java. On listening to the Odeon recordings, McPhee was inspired to embark on his research in Bali, which was to consume him for eight years and lead to a major work of scholarship, Music in Bali: It would dominate his musical ideas for the remainder of his life.
It was quite by accident that I had heard the few gramophone records that were to change my life completely, bringing me out here in search of something quite indefinable-music or experience, I could not at this moment say. His teacher, Arthur Friedheim , an eminent pianist and pupil of Liszt, wrote in his autobiography:.
His innate musical sense, his sturdy application and a striking personality marked him out for a brilliant career on the concert platform. I felt a personal sense of loss when, after I left Canada, he gave up the piano altogether and applied himself entirely to composition. Now he is in Java and other distant lands seeking new inspiration in the relatively unfamiliar native music.
Yet I must not criticise him because he has neglected my favorite instrument. Did I not do the same thing when I was his age?
The musicians are an integral part of the social group, fitting in among ironsmiths and goldsmiths, architects and scribes, dancers and actors, as constituents of each village complex. Modest and unassuming, they nevertheless take great pride in their art, an art which, however, is so impersonal that the composer himself has lost his identity.
Gamelan styles are associated with specific ceremonies, entertainment, or recreational activity. The suling bamboo flute provides additional pitches and tonal shadings, as do singers, who may join with the gamelan.
Traditionally, instrumental music is rarely notated; musicians learn their parts by rote. As the music is highly structured, improvisation is reserved for the leading drum, the flute, or solo instruments in specific contexts.
In contemporary schools, music is taught using a system of cipher notation. The unique collection of tuned gongs, gong-chimes and flat metallophones associated with the gamelan styles of Bali and Java, appears to have developed between the construction of the 9th-century Borobudur Buddhist temple and the arrival of the first Dutch expedition in In its most expanded form, Balinese gamelan is organized into instrumental stratification spanning over five octaves: a.
Basic statement of the melody within a one-octave range. Articulation at regular time intervals of the basic melody, generally every four tones. Full melodic expression, ranging from two to three octaves. Doubling and paraphrasing in the octave above. Ornamental figuration of the melody.
Punctuation of larger time intervals the general function of the gongs. Series Recent researches in the oral traditions of music, ; 12 Recent researches in the oral traditions of music Bapak I Wayan Loceng, Gender wayang, and a new definition for ethnomusicology.
Theoretical framework and musical biography ; Contextual background and musical ethnography ; Musical content. Contents Part 2. Gender wayang music of Bapak I Wayan Loceng. Performance and condensed scores. Saturday 2 May Sunday 3 May Monday 4 May Tuesday 5 May Wednesday 6 May Thursday 7 May Friday 8 May Saturday 9 May Sunday 10 May Monday 11 May Tuesday 12 May Wednesday 13 May Thursday 14 May Friday 15 May Saturday 16 May Sunday 17 May Monday 18 May Tuesday 19 May Wednesday 20 May Thursday 21 May Friday 22 May Saturday 23 May Sunday 24 May Monday 25 May Tuesday 26 May Wednesday 27 May Thursday 28 May Friday 29 May Saturday 30 May Sunday 31 May Monday 1 June Tuesday 2 June Thursday 4 June Friday 5 June Saturday 6 June Sunday 7 June Monday 8 June Tuesday 9 June Monday 15 June Tuesday 16 June Wednesday 17 June Friday 19 June Sexy Trippy All Moods.
Drinking Hanging Out In Love. Introspection Late Night Partying. Rainy Day Relaxation Road Trip. Romantic Evening Sex All Themes. The music itself was wild! The flutes blew long, wavering on-and-off tones, continuously played, the results of circular breath. The drums interjected thunderous rhythms while the clanging, clattering sounds of iron moved in, around and about in textural circles and rose and fell in smaller and larger percussive waves.
As is the case in all wayang performances, at times the gamelan only served to highlight and forward the action of the play. But even this was quite extraordinary. The stories themselves, which I had to rely on others to relate to me, varied also.
Rather, the story concerned the coming to Bali of Hinduism and the resultant strife that ensued between Hindus and Buddhists over the truth of their respective religions.
Eventually, however — through constructive interactions — each came to view the other with tolerance and respect. When the play was finished, after about an hour and a half, he was in a heavy sweat and appeared to be in an altered state.
He reminded me of seeing Cecil Taylor coming off stage after an hour or so of intensely pursued piano improvisations. I never did get a sense of the plot in the obviously humorous tale presented by the dalang from Jembrana, the west. I think he was pretty much alone in this feeling, but he did not want to tell me too much about the story. I personally liked the dalang who, I felt, was extremely conscientious in his approach and, through his extensive use of humor, was attempting to blend old stories with new and to make old but universal messages meaningful to a modern audience.
He is well known for his manner of introducing modern characters into his plays. Wayang Cenk Blonk , geared to a younger audience, is more directly humorous and entertaining than traditional wayang.
His innate musical sense, Tabuh Gari, his sturdy application and a striking personality marked him out for a brilliant career on the Tabuh Gari platform. Also featured were two drummers of the oblong kendang and players of large and small gongs and of cymbals ceng-ceng. Each of Tabuh Gari many-keyed metallophones in a gamelan ensemble is one of a pair with a few exceptions. Meta Daftar Masuk. Perbedaan yang menjolok adalah penggunaan instrumen melodis. Gamelan groups were having their older ceremonial orchestras melted down and reforged in the new style. Pendokumentasian musik secara sempurna sesungguhnya lebih lengkap dengan perekaman baik audio maupun visual dan menggunakan media elektronik hasilnya lebih sempurna. Articulation at regular time intervals of the basic melody, Tabuh Gari every four tones. Monday 25 May
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